Styrene (as Mandelic Acid and Phenylglyoxylic Acid), Occupational Exposure, urine

CPT: 83921;82570


Ethenylbenzene; Vinylbenzene

Test Includes

Creatinine; Mandelic Acid, mg/L; Mandelic Acid, mg/g creatinine; Phenylglyoxylic Acid, mg/L; Phenylglyoxylic Acid, mg/g creatinine; Mandelic & Phenylglyoxylic Acids, mg/L

Expected Turnaround Time

7 days

Related Information

In-house validated method

Specimen Requirements


Urine (random)


10 mL

Minimum Volume

0.5 mL


Plastic urine container or transport tube without preservative


Collection time: End of shift or end of exposure, prior to next shift

Storage Instructions

Submission/transport (<3 days): Refrigerate. For storage beyond three days, specimen should be frozen.

Test Details


Evaluate exposure to styrene


Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID); Spectrophotometry (SPEC)

Reference Interval

Mandelic Acid: Normal (unexposed population): endogenous levels up to 5 mg/L; Exposed: Biological Exposure Index (BEI): 800 mg/g creatinine (end of shift), 300 mg/g creatinine (prior to next shift); Toxic: Central nervous depression induced by styrene has been correlated with urine mandelic acid levels of 800 mg/L, decrements in psychomotor performance at >1200 mg/L. Phenylglyoxylic Acid: Normal (unexposed population): none detected; Exposed: Biological Exposure Index (BEI): 240 mg/g creatinine (end of shift), 100 mg/g creatinine (prior to next shift); Toxic: not established.